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Research work within INPLAMINT is organized along four lines: (1) characterization of the soil microbiome as a function of long-term nitrogen fertilization with different substrates (mineral fertilizer, manure, crop residues), of time since soil recultivation and of climatic influences to assess the effect of soil management, crop species and soil development on soil microbial functional biodiversity. For this purpose, soil has been collected at four different seasons of the year from the International Organic Nitrogen Long-term Fertilization Trial (IOSDV) at Rinkenbergerhof (LUFA Speyer, Germany) and at two different time points from an agricultural soil restoration chronosequence following open-cast lignite mining (RWE Power, Germany) in the region Niederrheinische Bucht, approx. 50 km west of Cologne, Germany; (2) laboratory/greenhouse experiments investigating the effect of different fertilization and soil amendment regimes, varying in amount, timing and substrate stoichiometry, on nutrient dynamics in the plant-soil-microorganism system; (3) a multi-factorial field experiment with crop sequences involving winter oilseed rape and grain legumes (faba bean) combined with winter wheat and winter barley with the aim to develop novel management options for buffering excess N after harvest with the aid of substrate-induced medium-term microbial N immobilization; (4) development of a model for the assessment of environmental and socioeconomic effects and screening assessment of novel management options.